“I know that many of us are afraid. We gather today in memory, in solidarity, but also in defiance. To be a Jew is, itself, an act of defiance. We will not cower. Be proud to be a Jew: you are connected to something special and precious – Am Yisrael, the people of Israel – the only Western civilization to have survived ancient days.” Rabbi Ammiel Hirsch reassured and inspired the New York Jewish community at the first Shabbat service after the shooting at the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, where 11 worshippers were killed.